What is retinal implant?
Retinal implant is the process of restoration of the vision for the patients who lost their vision due to the retinal degeneration; it is also known as retinal prostheses. The process of is undertaken by many research institutions and private companies globally. Retinal diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and also age-related macular degeneration tend to destroy the ability to see eventually while retinal implant has proved to restore partial vision of the patients. Sometimes the process can also be about providing the retina with some electrical stimulating that encourages various retinal neurons which are still surviving to work and get capable of vision again.
What the types of retinal implantation?
There are three major types of retinal implantation that can help people at least see partially-
- Epiretinal- this process of implantation is conducted on the retina itself. During the Epiretinal prostheses process some numbers of electrodes are positioned on the inner limited membrane of the eye retina, to internally stimulate the original retinal cyst cells and the neurons that exist within the retina.
- Subretinal- while this process is takes place behind the retina. Subretinal prostheses position the electrode arrays within the sub retinal space that is between the degenerate photoreceptor layer and pigment epithelium. This makes the stimulus of the electrodes to be placed within close proximity that helps to activate the left over amacrine and bipolar cells of the blind patient, which tentatively can excite the residual retinal circuitry in an extra natural way as compared to the epiretinal prostheses.
- Suprachoroidal- this implantation process takes places in between the sclera and the choroid. Suprachoroidal also known as episcleral prostheses positions the stimulus electrodes within a scleral pocket that is directly behind the choroid blood vessels.
What are the advantages of retinal implantation?
There are different advantages associated with the different forms of implantation-
- Epiretinal implants are beneficial because this process straight stimulates the ganglion cells of the retina, without blocking or delaying itself through the other layers of the retina. During the usual implantation the patient can be provided visual perception individually, even when the all other layer of the retina are damaged.
- The sub retinal implant is more beneficial as compared to the other forms of the implants as it has a simpler design. The easy stimulation, acquisition and processing are all performed with the help of micro photodiodes that in mounted in to an individual chip.
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