In an extension of previous work,1,2 we assessed 2 deep learning (DL) methods addressing a 2-class age-related macular degeneration (AMD) referability classification: referable for the intermediate or advanced stage of AMD or not referable.

We used 67 401 color fundus images (keeping only 1 image for each original stereo pair) from the National Eye Institute Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) data set3 that were taken from 4613 individuals (who provided written consent) over a 12-year study, including baseline and follow-up visits, from November 13, 1992, to November 30, 2005.1,2 The original AREDS image grading from certified graders at a fundus photograph reading center3 were used as the gold standard. The present analysis was performed from January 22, 2018, through April 19, 2018. Use of the AREDS data set was performed following Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Institutional Review Board approval.



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